Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2021 Jul 17:izab165. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izab165. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly affects women during childbearing years and often requires antepartum therapy. Data regarding effects of biologic exposure on delivery outcomes are limited. We explored whether peripartum biologic exposure impacts wound healing following cesarean section (C-section) and vaginal delivery (VD) in IBD patients.
METHODS: Pregnancy and IBD data from the IBD Preconception and Pregnancy Planning (I-PrePP) Clinic database were collected and analyzed. Primary outcome was frequency of postpartum wound infection in women receiving peripartum biologics, defined as exposure in the third trimester and up to 2 weeks postdelivery relative to nonexposed patients. Secondary outcomes included effect of peripartum biologic timing and IBD phenotype on wound healing. Descriptive statistics summarized data using frequency for categorical variables and median for continuous variables. Univariate analyses tested associations when appropriate.
RESULTS: Of 100 deliveries (interquartile range, 30-35; median, 33 years old), 58 were C-sections and 42 VDs. Peripartum biologic exposure occurred in 72% (42 of 58) and 57% (24 of 42), respectively. Median time from last dose to delivery was 6 (interquartile range, 4-8) weeks; 21 (32%) received biologics within 72 hours following delivery. Seven infections occurred following C-section among 5 unique CD patients. Peripartum biologic exposure was not associated with infection (4 of 66 [6%] exposed vs 3 of 34 [8.8%] nonexposed; P = .68), nor was disease activity (P = 1.0). Crohn's disease (P = 0.02), internal penetrating phenotype (P < .001), prior IBD surgery (P = .03), and prior postpartum infection (P = .04) were associated with infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Peripartum biologic exposure does not impair postpartum wound healing; however, patients with more complicated disease phenotypes require close monitoring.
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