Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2021 Jun 5:izab135. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izab135. Online ahead of print.
Conventional systemic and biologic agents are the mainstay of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management; however, many of these agents are associated with loss of clinical response, highlighting the need for effective, novel targeted therapies. Janus kinase (JAK) 1-3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) mediate signal transduction events downstream of multiple cytokine receptors that regulate targeted gene transcription, including the interleukin-12, interleukin-23, and type I interferon receptors for TYK2. This review summarizes the role of TYK2 signaling in IBD pathogenesis, the differential selectivity of TYK2 inhibitors, and the potential clinical implications of TYK2 inhibition in IBD. A PubMed literature review was conducted to identify studies of JAK1-3 and TYK2 inhibitors in IBD and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Key efficacy and safety information was extracted and summarized. Pan-JAK inhibitors provide inconsistent efficacy in patients with IBD and are associated with toxicities resulting from a lack of selectivity at therapeutic dosages. Selective inhibition of TYK2 signaling via an allosteric mechanism, with an agent that binds to the regulatory (pseudokinase) domain, may reduce potential toxicities typically associated with JAK1-3 inhibitors. Deucravacitinib, a novel, oral, selective TYK2 inhibitor, and brepocitinib and PF-06826647, TYK2 inhibitors that bind to the active site in the catalytic domain, are in development for IBD and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Allosteric TYK2 inhibition is more selective than JAK1-3 inhibition and has the potential to limit toxicities typically associated with JAK1-3 inhibitors. Future studies will be important in establishing the role of selective, allosteric TYK2 inhibition in the management of IBD.
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