J Clin Med. 2021 Dec 23;11(1):67. doi: 10.3390/jcm11010067.
Epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with sleep problems are at a greater risk of developing immune and chronic inflammatory diseases. As sleep disorders and low sleep quality in the general population are frequent ailments, it seems important to recognize them as serious public health problems. The exact relation between immunity and sleep remains elusive; however, it might be suspected that it is shaped by others stress and alterations of the circadian rhythm (commonly caused by for example shift work). As studies show, drugs used in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as steroids or monoclonal antibodies, also influence sleep in more complex ways than those resulting from attenuation of the disease symptoms. Interestingly, the relation between sleep and immunity appears to be bidirectional; that is, sleep may influence the course of immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, proper diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders are vital to the patient's immune status and, in effect, health. This review examines the epidemiology of sleep disorders and immune diseases, the associations between them, and their current treatment and novel perspectives in therapy.
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