J Clin Med. 2021 Oct 8;10(19):4623. doi: 10.3390/jcm10194623.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and potentially devastating condition of the digestive tract which is exemplified by increasing prevalence worldwide, byzantine pathogenesis with a poorly defined role of the environmental factors, and complex clinical demonstration. As a systemic disease, IBD may progress with a wide spectrum of extraintestinal manifestations (EMs) and comorbidities affecting different organs and systems, from anaemia, undernutrition, and cancer to those which are often neglected like anxiety and depression. Evolving IBD epidemiology and changing environment are reflected by an expanding list of IBD-related comorbidities. In contrast to the well-established role of smoking the connection between alcohol and IBD is still debatable on many levels, from pathogenesis to complications. Furthermore, little is known about narcotics use in IBD patients, even if there are obvious factors that may predispose them to narcotics as well as alcohol misuse. Last but not least, the question arises what is the prevalence of eating disorders in IBD. In our paper, we aimed to discuss the current knowledge on alcohol and drugs misuse and eating disorders as emerging extraintestinal comorbidities in IBD.
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