J Crohns Colitis. 2021 Sep 9:jjab162. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab162. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although recent studies have reported that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases via chronic intestinal inflammation and the gut-brain axis, there is insufficient evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with IBD.
METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service data for the entire Korean population, we identified patients with IBD and controls from 2009 to 2011 and followed them up until 2017. We selected the controls in a 1:4 ratio based on age and sex for comparison with cases.
RESULTS: Of 24,830 IBD patients and 99,320 non-IBD controls, 98 IBD patients and 256 controls developed PD, while 644 IBD patients and 2,303 controls developed AD. The overall neurodegenerative disease risk was higher in IBD patients [PD: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-1.97; AD: adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25). Younger IBD patients aged 40-65 years had a higher risk of PD compared to controls (adjusted HR, 2.34; 1.63-3.35)]. In contrast, patients aged ≥65 years had an increased risk of AD compared to controls (adjusted HR, 1.14; 1.04-1.25). In a nested case-control study of the IBD cohort, patients aged ≥65 years and the female sex were risk factors for AD, while living in an urban area was protective against AD.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of neurodegenerative diseases was higher in IBD patients than in the non-IBD population.